MLST MLST was performed according to the scheme described at the

MLST MLST was performed according to the scheme described at the E. coli MLST website maintained at the Max-Planck Institut für Infektionsbiologie http://​web.​mpiib-berlin.​mpg.​de. The seven housekeeping genes were shown to be unlinked on an E. coli K-12 genome map. Product lengths varied from 583 to 932 bp. DNA was isolated from the colonies using the check details ChargeSwitch® gDNA Mini Bacteria Kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), and stored at -20°C until required for PCR amplification. Sequencing PCR reactions were performed on the purified DNA using PuReTaq Ready-To-Go™ PCR beads (Amersham Biosciences UK Limited, Buckinghamshire, England) by adding 1 μl of extracted DNA

(~10 ng DNA), 1 μl of each primer (10 pmol μl-1) and 22 μl of water Mini-plasco® this website (Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany). Primer sequences and cycling conditions were employed as described on the MLST website. PCR was performed on a GeneAmp® PCR System 9700 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). PCR products were purified with the ChargeSwitch® PCR Clean-Up Kit (Invitrogen) and sequenced by MWG Biotech (Ebersberg, Germany). Sequence analysis Raw sequences were reviewed by visual inspection in BioNumerics version 4.601 (Applied Maths, Sint-Martens-Latem,

Beligium). DNA sequences were aligned and trimmed. Obtained sequences were aligned against known alleles in the database at the website, and allele numbers and sequence types were assigned. In the case of unknown Tideglusib alleles and/or sequence types, the new alleles and sequence types were submitted to the database. The phylogenetic tree is an UPGMA tree calculated Stattic research buy in BioNumerics

on the basis of the concatenated sequences. Phylogenetic group Phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D) were determined by a simple PCR procedure based on genes chuA, YjaA and an anonymous DNA fragment, using primers and conditions exactly as described by Clermont et al [31]. ExPEC genes The presence of six ExPEC genes, papA (P fimbriae), papC (pilus assembly), afa (afimbrial adhesion), sfa/foc (Sfimbriae/F1Ccfimbriae), iut (aerobactin system) and kpsM (kapsular synthesis) was detected by a PCR method, using primers and conditions exactly as described by Johnson et al [16]. Statistics The number of hemolysin positive E. coli, E. coli of serotypes typical for ExPEC, E. coli, with at least one positive ExPEC gene and B2 E. coli in different clinical groups were assessed with the Fisher Exact test (2-tailed). P < 0.05 was considered significant. Acknowledgements We thank Berit Jensen and Susanne Jespersen for their excellent technical help and student Henrik Petersen, who performed parts of the MLST. References 1. Janowitz HD, Croen EC, Sachar DB: The role of the fecal stream in Crohn’s disease: an historical and analytic review. Inflamm Bowel Dis 1998,4(1):29–39.CrossRefPubMed 2. Madsen KL: Inflammatory bowel disease: lessons from the IL-10 gene-deficient mouse. Clin Invest Med 2001,24(5):250–7.PubMed 3.

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