The process,

The process, E7080 cell line which shows a clear diurnal cycle, is called the semi-direct effect or cloud burning. Despite recent advances in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions (see e.g. Lohmann and Feichter, 2005, Wood et al., 2011 and Stubenrauch et al., 2013) there still exist major gaps in our knowledge about the processes involved (Stevens & Feingold

2009). For Europe there are no indications for diurnal cloudiness cycles owing to the influence of air pollution. Nonetheless, there does exist a statistical analysis for the years 1991–2005, after the strong emission episode in the Black Triangle, which illustrates significant weekly periodicities in many variables such as temperature, daily temperature range, sunshine duration, cloud amount, precipitation, and precipitation Epacadostat research buy frequency (Bäumer & Vogel 2007). Derived from both metropolitan areas and more remote stations, e.g. on the Zugspitze (altitude 2960 m), these findings may point to atmospheric dynamics on a larger scale rather than just directly to daily changes in the aerosol system. Besides the weekly periodicities

mentioned above, there are indications that the strong emissions of SO2 and particulate matter during the 1980s in Europe affected precipitation processes. Stjern et al. (2011) found that pollution reductions in the Black Triangle caused a substantial increase in horizontal visibility of 15 km from 1983 to 2008. The results are based on an analysis of synoptic weather observations (SYNOP) from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts’ (ECMWF) Meteorological Archive and Retrieval System. In addition Stjern et al. (2011) used gridded precipitation data sets from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia and from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and sulphate measurements from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP). In contrast to the evident change in visibility, the authors found no sign of any influence

of aerosols on total precipitation trends in Europe. However, the annual frequency of light precipitation events, i.e. precipitation as events with less than 0.5 mm in 12 hours, Selleckchem Obeticholic Acid increased significantly. For the area of the Black Triangle alone, significant changes in both total and light precipitation frequency were found and were attributed to air pollution. It is interesting that the trends analysed by Stjern et al. (2011) were more distinctive in summer. This is in line with the stronger summertime cloud albedo effect and the stronger brightness temperature change found by Krüger & Graßl (2002) and Devasthale et al. (2004) for Europe. There is clear evidence of human impact on aerosol cloud-mediated processes during the 1980s. This influence is seen for cloud albedo, cloud brightness temperature and precipitation.

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