A collective decision was made to change the

numbering of

A collective decision was made to change the

numbering of the levels, such that normality is awarded a score of 0.) The association between the UCEIS (including the descriptors and the 2 alternative scoring methods) and the evaluation of overall endoscopic severity by the VAS was quantified using Pearson correlation coefficients. Specifically, each investigator’s responses for their set of videos were correlated with the mean overall severity (VAS) for those videos, where video means were computed using the responses of all other investigators. These correlations were summarized by median, minimum, and maximum across investigators. Statistical significance www.selleckchem.com/screening/mapk-library.html was assumed at a level of 0.05 without adjusting for multiple comparisons. Cronbach’s coefficient α, using partial correlation coefficients, was calculated for the overall UCEIS score and for the score with one-at-a-time descriptor deletion to evaluate internal consistency in the UCEIS.9 Intrainvestigator and interinvestigator agreements for descriptors and the overall UCEIS score were characterized by κ statistics, qualitatively interpreted by Landis and Koch.10

The standard κ summarizing the exact level of agreement was used for the descriptors. Because the overall UCEIS score represents a 9-level ordinal scale, a weighted κ was used, taking into account close agreement by assigning a weight of 1 for exact agreement, Selleckchem Bafetinib 0.5 for scores that differed by 1 level, and 0 otherwise. Interobserver κ values were calculated by stratifying by investigator pairs and using the common videos they scored but excluding the second scoring of duplicate videos. An average of investigator-pair κ values

(“overall κ”) was calculated, where the weighting was the inverse of their variance. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement between the overall evaluation of endoscopic severity on the VAS and the UCEIS was assessed by reliability Fossariinae ratios (also known as intraclass correlation coefficients), estimated using mixed-effect linear models. The reliability ratios for interinvestigator agreement were estimated using a model with terms for “investigator,” “video,” and “error”; additional terms for “investigator-by-video effects” were used to evaluate intrainvestigator agreement.9 Correlation between the UCEIS and overall severity on the VAS, and all interobserver analyses avoided data from the second read of duplicate videos between investigators, and all those where clinical details were provided. Intraobserver analyses, including those for clinical detail/no clinical detail pairs, only used data from duplicate videos. The impact of knowledge of clinical details was evaluated by comparing UCEIS scores and overall severity scores on the VAS within the 50 clinical details/no clinical details pairs. Simple and absolute differences were computed within each pair.

U this reduction shall be higher than 30% (EC, 2007) In Brazil,

U. this reduction shall be higher than 30% (EC, 2007). In Brazil, the changes in the standards regarding the comparative information for total fat are planned to require a reduction of at least 30% in this nutrient content and the reference product is not able to fulfil the requisites for a “low-fat” product (ANVISA, 2011). With the exception of mousses MF (control) and MF–WPC, all other products presented less than 3 g/100 g (Table 3) and could hold the “low-fat” claim according to the Brazilian and the E.U. legislations (Brasil, 1998 and EC, 2007) (Table 7).

In comparison with the U.S. check details legislation and that under planning to be adopted in Brazil (ANVISA, 2011 and US CFR, 2010f), considering the serving portion of ½ cup as 120 g, I, as well as WPC, I–WPC, and MF–I–WPC, achieve less than 3 g fat per serving and could receive this “low-fat” claim (Table 7). For this kind of product, the upper level of fat in 3 g and the serving portion of 120 g made these standards more restrictive for achieving the “low-fat” claim. In terms of comparative information in relation to control MF, mousses I, WPC, I–WPC, and MF–I–WPC filled all requisites

to receive the “reduced” claim for fat content considering the current Brazilian legislation (Brasil, 1998) (Table 6 and Table 7). On the other hand, only modified mousse MF–WPC was not reduced in more than 30% fat (Table 6) and could not be allowed to receive the “reduced-fat” claim according to the E.U. regulatory GSK458 chemical structure standards and that under planning to be adopted in Brazil (Table 7). For the “reduced-fat” claim, the current Brazilian legislation seems to be more restrictive than the new proposal for this kind of product. Moreover, all modified mousses were reduced

in more than 25% fat (Table 6) and could receive the “reduced-fat” claim according to the U.S. legislation (US CFR, 2010f) that showed to be less restrictive, as well as for the Selleck Rucaparib “light” claim for energy (Table 7). Mousses I, WPC, I–WPC and MF–I–WPC could hold the “low saturated fat” claim in E.U. and currently in Brazil (Table 7), once they presented less than 1.5 g of SFA/100 g (Table 4), which, summed to the energy from trans-FA, in case of E.U., contributed for less than 10% of the total energy value ( Table 5) ( Brasil, 1998 and EC, 2007). In Brazil, the reviewed standards for the “low saturated fat” claim are planned to consider less than 1.5 g of sum SFA and trans-FA per serving portion and the conditions that “low saturated fat” products fill the conditions required for a “zero” trans-FA product ( ANVISA, 2011), as commented next, and the maximum energy provided by saturated fat must be 10% of total energy of food. In this case, mousses I, WPC, I–WPC, and MF–I–WPC could still receive the “low saturated fat” claim ( Table 7). The U.S.

Numerical integrations with the Mike 3 model started on 1 January

Numerical integrations with the Mike 3 model started on 1 January 2008 and were initialized with mean winter seasonal fields of temperature and salinity at standard oceanographic levels from the Dartmouth Adriatic Data Base (DADB). The DADB data base is constructed from two existing data sets (Galos 2000): the Mediterranean Oceanographic Data Base and the Adriatic Sea Temperature, Oxygen and Salinity Data Set (Cushman-Roisin et al. 2007). Interpolation

selleck chemicals llc and extrapolation of T and S values from the data sets on the numerical nodes of the Mike 3 model ( Figure 3) were performed with the use of objective analysis ( Bretherton & Fauday 1976). The turbulent closure model used within Mike 3 relies on a k-ε formulation in the vertical direction ( Rodi 1987) and in the

horizontal direction ( Smagorinsky 1993). In the model parameterization we used the very same values as in the previously completed study ( Andročec et al. 2009), with regard to the sea circulation, where the same Mike 3 numerical model system was applied to the same spatial domain. Sensitivity analysis and more detailed validation of the numerical model results were also included in the work by Andročec et al. (2009). In addition to the values adopted from previous studies (dispersion coefficients for T, S, k and ε), the model’s parameterization relies on literature-referenced values without their overall influence on the numerical model results being examined: 0.00123 selleck for the wind friction coefficient ( Wu 1994), a = 0.25 and b = 0.52 for the correlative coefficients in Angstrom’s law ( Zaninović et al. 2008), 0.5 and 0.9 for the wind constant and the evaporation coefficient in Dalton’s law respectively. The heat flux absorption profile in the

short-wave radiation is described by a modified version of Beer’s law. The values adopted were 0.2 for the energy absorption coefficient in the surface layer and 0.1 for the light decay coefficient in the vertical direction. The convective-dispersive component of the oil transport module was established by means of the Lagrangian discrete particles approach. The displacement of each Lagrangian particle is given by the Methisazone sum of an advective deterministic and a stochastic component, the latter representing the chaotic nature of the flow field, the sub-grid turbulent dispersion. The movement of Lagrangian particles due to advection in a three-dimensional current field is described by the following ordinary differential equation: equation(1) dx→pdt=υ→x→pt, where υ→ is the vector velocity with components (u  , v  , w  ) in the x  , y   and z   directions, and x→p is the coordinate of the particle in the three directions. The velocity field relies on the results of the current field, obtained by simulation with the Mike 3 sea circulation model.

The angiographic method chosen is influenced by other conditions

The angiographic method chosen is influenced by other conditions of the patient (Fig. 3). In patients with extensive arteriosclerosis and renal insufficiency MRA without contrast material is reasonable Selleck HSP inhibitor to be performed (Class IIa, Level of Evidence: C). DSA may also be considered in case of renal dysfunction because of the advantage of limiting the amount of potentially nephrotoxic contrast material (Class IIb, Level of Evidence: C). When MRA is contraindicated, e.g. in patients with claustrophobia or implanted pacemaker, CTA can be effective for patient’s evaluation

(Class IIa, Level of Evidence: C). When duplex US, CTA, or MRA suggests complete carotid occlusion, catheter-based contrast angiography might be reasonable to decide whether carotid lumen is suitable for revascularization

procedure (Class IIb, Level of Evidence: C). Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the gold standard for the treatment of carotid atherosclerosis. It is recommended if the degree of stenosis is more than 70% measured by non-invasive methods (Class I, Level of Evidence A) [9], or more than 50% with catheter angiography (Class I, Level of Evidence: B) [10] in symptomatic patients (TIA or ischemic stroke within the past 6 months) at average or low surgical risk with an anticipated perioperative stroke or mortality rate less than 6%. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is an alternative method of CEA, which might be considered for patients with severe (>70%) stenosis, especially if Mitomycin C molecular weight the stenosis is difficult to access surgically (Class IIb, Level of Evidence: B) [11]. Non-invasive control of the extracranial arteries can be useful these 1 month, 6 months and annually after revascularization (CEA/CAS) to ascertain the patency and to exclude the development of ipsi- or contralateral lesions (Class IIa, Level of Evidence: C).

Vertebral artery atherosclerosis is responsible for approximately 20% of posterior circulation stroke, which can be an underestimation because of the difficult visualization of vertebral arteries by ultrasonography [12]. The symptoms of vertebral artery disease include dizziness, vertigo, diplopia, tinnitus, blurred vision, perioral numbness, ataxia, bilateral sensory deficits and syncope. After clinical history and examination of the patient non-invasive imaging is needed in the initial evaluation process. In patients with symptoms suggesting posterior circulation deficits MRA or CTA should be preferred over ultrasonography to detect vertebral artery disease (Class I, Level of Evidence: C). If the location and degree of stenosis cannot be defined with certainty by these non-invasive methods and the patient with vertebrobasilar insufficiency symptoms may be a candidate to undergo revascularization procedure, catheter-based contrast angiography is reasonable to assess the pathoanatomy of the artery (Class IIa, Level of Evidence: C).

1A–C) is the higher levels of vg, vgR and hex 70a transcripts in

1A–C) is the higher levels of vg, vgR and hex 70a transcripts in non-infected

bees fed beebread compared to the infected bees fed the same diet. These results indicate that infection significantly prevented up-regulation of vg, vgR and hex 70a genes in the bees fed beebread. Infection also prevented the increase in the levels of vg and hex 70a transcripts (but not of vgR transcripts) in syrup-fed bees, although this effect was much less obvious than that shown by beebread-fed bees ( Fig. 1A–C). Bees fed on royal jelly showed low and similar levels of vg, vgR and hex 70a transcripts, regardless of infection ( Fig. 1A–C). In contrast to vg, vgR and hex 70a, neither the diet nor the infection altered the expression of the apoLp-III ( Fig. 1D) and apoLp-II/I genes ( Fig. 1E). Similar to apoLp-II/I, the expression of apoLpR did not change as a Verteporfin price consequence of the infection ( Fig. 1F), however, the apoLpR gene was the only to show a higher expression in the bees fed syrup

in comparison to those fed beebread. To validate the above findings, we investigated the abundance of vg, hex 70a, and apoLp-II/I gene products in hemolymph of the bees fed the different diets and infected. The Vg, Hex 70a, and ApoLp-I (the major subunit derived from the post-translational cleavage of ApoLp-II/I) proteins are secreted by the fat body into the hemolymph, where they accumulate in large quantities. Similar to the transcription levels, we observed the highest Vg and Hex 70a levels in the hemolymph of the non-infected beebread-fed Selleckchem Obeticholic Acid bees. Intermediate and low, or very low, levels were respectively found in the other non-infected groups, fed royal jelly or syrup ( Fig. 2). Infection impaired the normal accumulation of Vg and Hex 70a in Palbociclib cost the hemolymph of the bees fed beebread or royal jelly and this was more evident for Vg than for Hex 70a. Infection did not show any obvious effect on the hemolymph level of either protein in the bees fed syrup ( Fig. 2). Comparisons

of the ApoLp-I levels among the non-infected groups suggest that ApoLp-I accumulation is diet-dependent. However, this analysis was somewhat hindered due to the inconsistent levels of ApoLp-I in the hemolymph of bees fed on each of the protein-rich diets. In any case, the infection only slightly impaired the storage of ApoLp-I, independent of the diet supplied ( Fig. 2). All the bee groups showed similar survival rates, regardless of diet or infection (Supplementary file 1). To ensure that the bees were feeding normally, we also measured the volume of food consumed daily. There was no significant difference among the groups of bees (Supplementary file 2). We explored the relationships between diet (nutrition), ovary activation and response to infection in the honey bees. Because the worker bees used in this study were maintained without a queen, some of them were able to activate their ovaries.

noltii revealed up-regulation

of 28 genes in response to

noltii revealed up-regulation

of 28 genes in response to heat in the northern N. noltii population, none of them encoding HSPs or genes of any functional category associated with the term “stress”. To investigate whether the 28 genes were also important during the heat response of the southern population, the normalized expression profiles were compared between all four N. noltii libraries. While the expression of the 28 “heat response” genes was in general strongest during heat in the northern population, they show intermediate expression levels in both southern N. noltii libraries ( Fig. 5; FDR α < 0.05, Fig. S7). This suggests an increased constitutive expression in the southern population for the 28 genes of the northern heat response. Population performance in response to the heat wave was measured using normalized changes in shoot abundance. A generalized linear model (GLM) Obeticholic Acid approach showed significant treatment and time point effects for both species (p-value < 0.05) with a negative effect of the heat treatment and a greater shoot loss towards the end of the experiment

(Table S3). For Z. marina, the negative effect of the heat treatment was weakest during acute heat on the northern population; the southern population performed better throughout the experiment (p-value < 0.05) (Fig. S8, Table S3). For N. noltii, no significant difference was found in performance between populations (p-value < 0.05, Table S3). The treatment effect was weakest during acute heat in the northern population Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin (Fig. S8). Short-term reductions in growth were present in both species. In accordance with the expectation of N. noltii being more stress tolerant, we observed a Selleckchem Venetoclax higher temperature threshold for the induction of heat shock proteins in N. noltii compared to Z. marina, regardless of population origin. Moreover, we identified a higher constitutive expression

of heat responsive (HR) genes in populations from the southern location of both species, suggesting a possible mechanism for local adaptation. Our study supports earlier work on Z. marina showing a largely concordant acute heat stress response between populations from northern and southern European locations and the expected up-regulation of several heat shock proteins upon heat treatment ( Franssen et al., 2011a) (Table S4, Fig S6). Across locations, HSP up-regulation in Z. marina indicates molecular stress during the realistic heat wave scenario at water temperatures of 26 °C (see also Bergmann et al., 2010), which is further supported by detrimental effects on shoot abundance as well as reduction in growth rates and poorer photosynthetic performance shown in previous experiments ( Bergmann et al., 2010, Winters et al., 2011 and Gu et al., 2012). Heat stress responses, however, involve many thermal tolerance processes other than induction of HSP genes (Krebs, 1999, Larkindale et al., 2005, Wahid et al., 2007, Kotak et al., 2007 and Gu et al., 2012).

Two specimens of Atlantic horse mackerel were collected in 2007–2

Two specimens of Atlantic horse mackerel were collected in 2007–2008 during the annual monitoring of fish, carried out by the research vessel SNB-AR-1 (University of Agriculture, Szczecin) in a network of areas along the western Polish coasts of the Baltic Sea with the aim of following the development of coastal fish stocks. All monitoring areas were located close to the coast. The other fish species were caught by accident by local fishermen with flounder gillnets or fyke nets (Figure 1). In 2007–2008 representatives of the following species were captured and examined: 1. two juveniles [(1) and (2)] of Atlantic horse mackerel

check details Trachurus trachurus L., 1758; Fam. Carangidae, Order: Perciformes; location: Pomeranian Bay, depth: 12 m; bottom trawl; date of capture: 30 September 2007; both individuals immature; All the specimens were selleck chemical examined morphologically following Krzykawski et al., 2001, Turan, 2006 and Uiblein and Heemstra, 2010. Species were identified with the aid of available keys (Whitehead et al. 1986). Table 2 lists detailed taxonomic data of the striped red mullet in

order to rule out any doubts about the species’ taxonomic status. In addition, the stomach contents of the fish were analysed. Parasitological examination focused on the skin, vitreous humour, eye lens, mouth and nasal cavities, gills, gonads, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, swim bladder, peritoneum and muscles. The parasites found in the fish were prepared for species determination by viewing the specimens in transient light, immersed in glycerine Pregnenolone or preserved in 70% ethanol so that the procedure could be continued the next day. Table 1 presents biological descriptions (total length, weight and stomach contents) of the fish examined. The stomachs of all the fish were empty, except that of the thicklip grey mullet from

the first location – (1), in which two specimens of Gammarus pulex (L., 1758) (Gammaridae) were found. Morphological examination of the specimens showed that they fit within the ranges given in Whitehead et al., 1986 and Krzykawski et al., 2001, with the exception of the striped red mullet (Figure 2), which also exhibited some features characteristic of Mullus barbatus L. (shape and length of head, barbel length, gill raker count). Table 2 lists the detailed morphological characteristics of the specimen of M. surmuletus examined, including the metric characters expressed as a proportion of total length (TL), standard length (SL) and head length (HL), and meristic features. The ‘visiting’ fishes hosted eight pathogens from four taxonomic groups: Protozoa (two species), Nematoda (three species), Acanthocephala (two species) and Mollusca (one species) (Table 3). The most numerous were nematodes (Secernentea: Anisakidae), recorded in fishes of three species.

Thus, the current results support that ventral striatal activity

Thus, the current results support that ventral striatal activity is a reward prediction error signal, and more than a mere reinforcement signal (Schultz, 1998). Moreover, BAS related activation was present in the medial orbitofrontal

cortex, which is connected to reward anticipation in reward sensitive subjects (Hahn et al., 2009). When an Selleckchem Etoposide unexpected reward cue is identified by the ventral striatum, the individual forms an anticipation of a rewarding event in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (Bechara et al., 2000 and Kringelbach and Rolls, 2004). Also as hypothesized, we found an antagonistic influence of BIS/FFFS on BAS related brain activation and behavior, supporting the Joint Subsystems Hypothesis (Corr, 2001). According to the view of separable subsystems, either an avoidance- or an approach related brain-behavior system is in exclusive control of the behavioral

execution at any moment, with each activation level independent of the other (Pickering, 1997). Most studies inspired by the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory have adopted this view, which, if incorrect, http://www.selleckchem.com/products/abt-199.html might explain the conflicting results in the literature (Corr, 2004). Corr suggested that the effects of joint subsystems will be more pronounced in situations with weak appetitive or conflicting stimuli (Corr, 2002) which was supported by this fMRI study. The distinct effects from N and SP on SR related brain activity and behavior in the present study shed light on the unique contributions of BIS and FFFS. According to the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory FFFS cancels approach behavior 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase due to aversive stimuli while BIS limits,

but supports approach behavior under conflicts (Gray & McNaughton, 2000). One could thus expect that the strongest antagonistic effect on BAS stem from FFFS which we believed would be more closely related to SP than N. In fact, low SP promoted approach behavior demonstrated by the predictive strength of SR+/SP− scores on the right RT priming effect. Notable, this impulsivity measure is a more sensitive BAS measure than commission errors (Avila & Parcet, 2002), perhaps because commission errors reduce reward associations by dopaminergic depression (Schultz, 1998). Furthermore, SR+/SP− was related to activation in the hippocampus on which dopaminergic action facilitates declarative memory for both unexpected reward cues and subsequent stimuli (Adcock et al., 2006 and Wittmann et al., 2005). Finally, while SR+/SP− was related to activation in the anterolateral part of the ventral striatum spreading into putamen, the SR+/N− related peak activity was localized more posteromedially. The former area is associated with reward related learning independent of negative feedback while the latter responds to both aversive and appetitive stimuli (Jensen et al., 2003 and Mattfeld et al., 2011).

, 2004 and Rushworth et al , 2002), as volition or self-generated

, 2004 and Rushworth et al., 2002), as volition or self-generated actions (not externally cued) appear to be a common factor across experimental findings. For example, the Bereitschaftspotential – a negative premotor potential recorded over central frontal electrodes in humans – has larger peak amplitudes with self-initiated actions ( Deecke & Kornhuber, 1978); while in monkeys, lesions of the pre-SMA impair the ability to initiate arbitrary movements to obtain a reward, but the effect is ameliorated if the animals

Crenolanib solubility dmso are cued with an external tone ( Thaler, Chen, Nixon, Stern, & Passingham, 1995). Unilateral inactivation of monkey pre-SMA with muscimol has been found to induce deficits in sequence learning, but performance of previously well-learnt sequences was left intact (Nakamura, Sakai, & Hikosaka, 1999). This has

led to the suggestion that this might reflect an impairment of the mechanism responsible for updating the association between the correct action given current conditions. Therefore, it is possible that deficits in self-initiated action observed after SMA/pre-SMA disruption might arise from a failure to make the appropriate connection between the action to be initiated in a novel situation ( Nachev et al., 2008). Trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has also been employed to measure physiological interactions between pre-SMA Selleck CDK inhibitor and other brain regions associated with response selection. This has demonstrated that in the presence

of response conflict, pre-SMA facilitates motor-evoked potentials in M1 during action reprogramming (Mars et al., 2009), and suppresses unselected response options (Duque, Olivier, & Rushworth, 2013). TMS over pre-SMA has been associated with an increased delay in the ability to inhibit responses (Cai, George, Verbruggen, Chambers, & Aron, 2012), but there is also evidence that activity in pre-SMA can occur before stopping is initiated, which would be indicative of a role in selecting rather than implementing responses (Swann et al., 2012). However, a caveat of this approach is that TMS stimulation which induces a transient ‘lesion’ may also propagate Fossariinae to other brain networks. Similar effects on network function have also been observed following anatomical focal lesions, dependent on the position of the brain area within the network architecture and degree of white matter involvement (Gratton, Nomura, Pérez, & D’Esposito, 2012). Although cognitive control, self-initiated action and sequence learning may not be mutually exclusive functions, providing an overarching framework which can account for the range of such complex behaviour has proven difficult. Due to the extremely rare incidence of focal damage to this brain area in humans, only a very small number of lesion studies of pre-SMA have been reported.

In this study, sink size was the yield-related trait most signifi

In this study, sink size was the yield-related trait most significantly positively correlated with GY. In this study, SM of the cultivars with yields over 15.0 t ha− 1 was more than 50,000. Grain yield in rice depends Volasertib datasheet upon PN, SP, SFP, and GW. Direct path coefficients of PN and PW to GY were similar, indicating that the effects on GY were equal for these two factors. Panicle number per square meter was significantly influenced by location, but PW was not. Panicle number per square meter was significantly and positively correlated with LAI, SM, and GY, suggesting that PN is the basis for increasing

source and sink and the guarantee of higher yields. Gravois and Helms [40] reported that optimum rice yield could not be attained without optimum panicle density at uniform maturity. Panicle number per square meter was significantly and negatively correlated with individual Birinapant order PW for both years, showing that high yields could be attributed to factors other than PN. These results are supported by the statistic analysis, showing that the average PN of the 48 cultivars tested in 2008 was lower than those in 2007, whereas the average GY was higher in 2008 than in 2007. Panicle weight is the product of SP, SFP, and GW. The direct path coefficient to PW declined from SP to GW to SFP, in contrast to the results of Yuan et al.

[19]. Given that only two cultivars were used by Yuan et al. [19], their results may have been limited. Spikelet number per panicle, ranging from 121 to 287 with an average of 191, differed significantly across cultivars but not across locations or years. Spikelet filling percentage was influenced mainly by the environment, but was relatively stable under high yield cultivation, reaching 80% at Nanjing and 87% at Taoyuan. Grain weight is a stable varietal factor, because grain size is rigidly controlled by the size of the hills in which the rice is ifenprodil planted [41]. Consequently, average GW is nearly constant

and minimally influenced by the environment. Similar results were observed in this study; the GWs of II You 107 and Xieyou 107 were 27.6 ± 0.8 g and 30.6 ± 1.3 g across locations and years. However, the GW of the 101 cultivars tested ranged from 18.8 g to 35.6 g, with an average of 30.3 g. The cultivars with lower GW values also showed low GY. These results indicate that larger grain size has been an objective of high-yield hybrid rice breeding. Grain weight ranged from 29.0 to 31.0 mg for cultivars with a GY of more than 17 t ha− 1 in this study. Although the average PN decreased from 308 m− 2 in 2007 to 274 m− 2 in 2008, SP increased from 180 to 205 over the same period, resulting in similar sink size for the two years. However, the average GW increased from 29.2 mg in 2007 to 31.5 mg in 2008, resulting in a higher GY in 2008 than in 2007. Clearly, the newly developed hybrid rice cultivars have changed from heavy-panicle to large-panicle types. The yield potential varied greatly over locations, but not across growing seasons.