Both AtWAK1 and AtWAK2 were shown to bind pectin in vitro AtWAK2

Both AtWAK1 and AtWAK2 were shown to bind pectin in vitro. AtWAK2 was shown to be required for the pectin-induced activation of numerous genes, many of which were involved in defense responses [8]. OsWAK1 transcript was significantly induced Ganetespib after infection with the rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae) and also induced following treatment with exogenous SA or methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Transgenic rice lines overexpressing OsWAK1 showed enhanced

resistance to M. oryzae strain P007 [11]. Although four WAKs (TaWAK1–4) and two WAKLs (TaWAKL1 and TaWAKL2) have been isolated from wheat [12], their functional roles remain poorly understood. Phyto-hormones, including SA, JA, ethylene, and abscisic acid (ABA), are known to play important roles in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18] and [19]. Upon microbial attack, plants modify the relative abundance of these hormones as a defense mechanism that can then activate efficient defense responses at the molecular genetic level, enabling plant survival [20]. SA is involved in recognition of pathogen-derived components and the subsequent establishment of local and systemic acquired resistance [21] and [22]. JA and ethylene signaling act synergistically and regulate induced systemic resistance. ABA also plays an important role in plant defense response,

and the ABA signaling pathway interacts with other phyto-hormone signaling pathways in plant defense responses [23], [24] and [25]. Wheat is one of the most important staple crops in the world and plays a fundamental role in food security. Sharp eyespot disease, mainly caused by signaling pathway the necrotrophic fungal pathogen R. cerealis, is one of the most devastating diseases in wheat production [26] and [27]. In infected wheat Lenvatinib plants, R. cerealis may destroy the stems and sheaths of host plants and can cause lodging and dead spikes [27]. Few wheat

genes involved in wheat defense responses to R. cerealis have been identified or characterized to date. Moreover, it is not known whether protein kinases participate in wheat responses to the pathogen infection during the developing process of sharp eyespot disease. The goal of this research was to understand the roles of WAKs in wheat defense responses to R. cerealis infection. By using the Agilent wheat microarrays, we studied the transcriptomic profiles of WAK/WAKL genes in resistant and susceptible wheat lines following inoculation with R. cerealis. A WAK gene named TaWAK5 was identified to be significantly up-regulated at 21 days post inoculation (dpi) in the resistant wheat line CI12633 as compared with susceptible wheat cultivar Wenmai 6. This paper reports the identification, molecular characterization, and functional analysis of TaWAK5. The transcript abundance of TaWAK5 was markedly induced after R. cerealis infection. Its expression was also induced following exogenous application of SA, ABA, and MeJA.

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