Therefore, the research question for this systematic review was: What is the inter-rater reliability for measurements of passive physiological or accessory movements in lower extremity joints? MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for studies published up to 1 March 2010. Search terms included all lower extremity joints and all synonyms for reliability and rater see more (see Appendix 1 on the eAddenda for the detailed search strategy for MEDLINE). The titles and abstracts were screened for eligibility by two reviewers (EvT, RJvdP) independently. When necessary, full text articles were retrieved. Reference
lists of all retrieved papers were hand searched for relevant studies. A supplemental hand search of 13 journals relevant to the field of physiotherapy from 1 January 2005 to 1 March 2010 (see Appendix 2 on the eAddenda for journals) was performed LBH589 by one reviewer (EvT). Finally, four experts in lower extremity musculoskeletal research were approached to ask if they could provide any additional published studies. Additionally retrieved papers were checked for eligibility by a second reviewer (RJvdP). Studies were included if they
met all inclusion criteria (Box 1). No restrictions were imposed on language or date of publication. Studies were excluded if they were abstracts and documents that were anecdotal, speculative, or editorial in nature. Studies were also excluded if they investigated: active movement or restriction in passive movement due to pain Rutecarpine or ligament instability; people with neurological conditions in which abnormal muscle tone may interfere with joint movement; people after arthroplasty; animals or cadavers. Study selection was performed by two reviewers (EvT, RJvdP) independently. Disagreements on eligibility were first resolved by discussion between the two reviewers and decided by a third reviewer (CL) if disagreement persisted. Design • Repeated measures between raters Participants • Symptomatic and asymptomatic adults Measurement procedure • Performed passive (ie, manual) physiological
or accessory movements in any of the joints of the hip, knee, or ankle–foot–toes Outcomes • Estimates of inter-rater reliability Description: We extracted data on participants (number, age, clinical characteristics), raters (number, profession, training), measurements (joints and movement direction, participant position, movement performed, method of measurement, outcomes reported), and inter-rater reliability (point estimates, estimates of precision). Two reviewers (EvT, RJvdP) extracted data independently and were not blind to journal, authors, or results. When disagreement between the two reviewers could not be resolved by discussion, a third reviewer (CL) made the final decision. Quality: No validated instrument was available for assessing methodological quality of inter-rater reliability studies.