93 with college students and .92 with psychiatric outpatients. Internal consistency
was examined through reliability analysis. The AST-D had a Cronbach’s α of .82, indicating a good level of internal consistency (Barker, Pistrang, & Eliott, 1996). The corrected item-total correlations had a mean of .37. GSK126 order The pleasantness ratings of the scenarios were normally distributed (Shapiro–Wilk test: W = 0.995, p = .78). There was no significant difference in pleasantness ratings between men and women, t(206) = 0.96, p = .34, and no significant correlation with age (rs = .03, p = .63). As predicted, participants’ pleasantness ratings correlated negatively and significantly with their BDI-II score, r(206) = −.48, p < .001. Thus increased dysphoria was associated with a more negative interpretation bias. Partial correlations showed that when controlling for SUIS, the correlation remained significant r(205) = −.47,
p < .001, as when controlling APO866 solubility dmso for AST-D vividness r(205) = −.51, p < .001. The range of BDI-II scores was 0–54. The high and low dysphoric groups did not differ significantly in age, t(142) = 1.29, p = .20 or gender, χ2(1, N = 144) = 2.51, p = .11, see Table 1. AST-D pleasantness ratings were compared between high and low dysphoric groups using independent samples t-tests. As predicted, the low dysphoric group rated the scenarios as significantly less pleasant than the high dysphoric group, t(142) = 5.95, p < .001, d = 0.99, suggesting a more negative interpretation bias. The vividness ratings for the AST-D items were not significantly different between the two groups, t(142) = 0.32, p = .75. The high dysphoric group reported greater spontaneous use of mental imagery in everyday life, as measured by the SUIS, t(142) = 2.83, p = .005, d = 0.46. These results
provide initial support for a simple to administer AST-D as an index of interpretation bias in depressed mood. Using a web-based study, the AST-D demonstrated good consistency in a population of students. The pleasantness ratings on RVX-208 this measure were negatively correlated with depressed mood (BDI-II), as would be predicted by the presence of a negative interpretation bias. This correlation was independent of vividness of the imagination of the AST-D scenarios, and of tendency to use mental imagery. Further, as predicted, high and low dysphoric groups differed significantly on the AST-D pleasantness ratings. Although not key to our hypotheses, one unexpected finding was the higher SUIS scores in the high dysphoric group (Table 1). It is possible that such scores might reflect the presence of intrusive negative imagery – a feature of increasing research interest (Patel et al., 2007 and Williams and Moulds, 2007). However, the mean values show only a modest difference and future research is needed to test replicability and further hypotheses about imagery in depression (Holmes , Lang & Deeprose, 2009).